Abstract/Details

Age-associated changes in the modulation of afferent feedback during voluntary actions


2012 2012

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Abstract (summary)

Older adults tend to use greater amounts of antagonist muscle activity than young adults when performing the same movements. As antagonist muscles oppose the actions of agonist muscles, heightened levels of antagonist coactivation are typically considered undesirable due to the increase in metabolic cost and the potential to compromise movement accuracy. The greater coactivation used by elderly adults has been attributed to age-associated declines in the neuromotor system. Recent evidence suggests that young adults tend to rely on afferent feedback to produce corrective actions when performing voluntary contractions, whereas older adults prefer a feedforward strategy of increasing antagonist coactivation to stiffen the joint. This observation suggests that aging may be accompanied by a shift in the preferred control of voluntary movements from feedback to feedforward strategies. This dissertation comprised four studies that tested this hypothesis. Consistent with the hypothesis, the first study found that the synaptic input received by motor neurons innervating an arm muscle of young and old subjects differed when they performed steady contractions. The second study investigated the interaction between coactivation and modulation of afferent input during the functionally relevant task of stepping up down from a platform and the differences between young and old subjects. The results indicated that older adults coactivated leg muscles more and modulated afferent input less during stepping. The other two studies comprised an approach whereby the activity level of the agonist muscle was controlled and the capacity of the nervous system to augment afferent input was measured. The findings indicated that older adults, in contrast to young adults, did not modulate afferent input across conditions. Despite similar values for muscle strength as young adults, middle-aged adults also did not change afferent input across task conditions. These results indicate that the decline in the ability of the nervous system to modulate sensory input begins during middle age and precedes the age-associated decline in muscle mass and strength.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Physiology
Classification
0719: Physiology
Identifier / keyword
Biological sciences; Afferent feedback; Aging; Hoffmann reflex; Presynaptic inhibition; Voluntary actions
Title
Age-associated changes in the modulation of afferent feedback during voluntary actions
Author
Holmes, Matthew Raymond
Number of pages
159
Publication year
2012
Degree date
2012
School code
0051
Source
DAI-B 73/09(E), Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9781267335449
Advisor
Enoka, Roger M.
Committee member
Ahmed, Alaa A.; Kram, Rodger; Maluf, Katrina S.; Wright, Kenneth P.
University/institution
University of Colorado at Boulder
Department
Integrative Physiology
University location
United States -- Colorado
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3508003
ProQuest document ID
1017887324
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1017887324/abstract
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