Stabilization of petroleum sludge
Investigations for the effective stabilization and solidification of an acidic petroleum sludge are reported in this thesis. Literature and vendor surveys were performed to evaluate candidate stabilization agents. Fifty mixes using over twenty different agents were evaluated in the laboratory. Conventional stabilization agents, such as cement and fly ash, were investigated along with unconventional agents such as organically modified clays. A detailed study of the organically modified clays indicated that the organophilic clays responded differently with regard to each other and with regard to the organic test fluids utilized. The stability of the treated sludge was evaluated by unconfined compression tests, while the leaching potential of hazardous constituents from the stabilized matrix was evaluated using a modified form of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The organically modified clays, used in conjunction with some type of binder material such as portland cement, appear to provide adequate stabilization of the petroleum sludge.