Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of mutagenic metabolites of the herbicide alachlor
The herbicide alachlor is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world; over 52 million pounds are applied to U.S. croplands annually. The acetanilide compounds 2-chloro-2$\sp\prime,6\sp\prime$-diethylacetanilide (CDA) and 2-hydroxy-2$\sp\prime,6\sp\prime$-diethylacetanilide (HDA) are environmental degradative products of alachlor. CDA, HDA and alachlor are ground and surface water contaminants; CDA and HDA are mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay. There is a paucity of data on the environmental fate of CDA and HDA.
The development of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA) for the detection of CDA and HDA is reported. cELISA3 is specific for CDA with a detection range of 0.015 to 10 $\mu$g/ml. Solid phase extraction of CDA residues from aqueous samples gives a 1000-fold concentration factor resulting in an effective detection limit of 15 pg/ml. cELISA4 is specific for both CDA and HDA in combination, with a detection range of 0.01 to 10 $\mu$g/ml. Solid phase extraction of aqueous samples prior to cELISA analysis results in an effective detection limit of 10 pg/ml. Chloroacetanilide herbicides and other alachlor metabolites that may be present in environmental samples do not interfere with the detection of CDA and HDA.
cELISA3, cELISA4 and the antisera they are based on provide a means of studying the environmental fate of CDA and HDA through a variety of analytical strategies.
0768: Environmental science
0749: Agricultural chemicals