Abstract/Details

Characterization of compost biofilter media


1998 1998

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Abstract (summary)

The goal of this study was to determine the physical, chemical and biological properties that can be used to determine the performance of compost as biofilter media. Four types of compost were characterized with regard to pH, total organic carbon and nitrogen content in solid matrix and water extracts, moisture content, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial population densities. Compost were blended with ceramic pellets and oyster shell into three media mixtures: biosolids (BS), yard waste (YW) and a biosolids/horse manure mixture (BSHM). Performance was determined in laboratory scale systems treating a mixture of VOCs under different operational conditions. Media from a full-scale biofilter was also characterized and its properties related to system performance.

Performance was closely related to compost quality characteristics. Initial high oxygen uptake rate and soluble total carbon of BSHM shortened the acclimation period. After severe drying, however, rewetting of BSHM could not be achieved. High water holding capacity, good rewettability and low compaction of YW resulted in sustained high removal efficiencies over the operation period. Rewetting after drying was achieved for BS and YW media.

Among the four compounds present in the VOC mixture, ethanol was degraded sooner followed by butyraldehyde, ethyl acetate and 1,1-diethoxy butane(DEB). Media drying resulted in ethyl acetate and DEB removal efficiencies decreases due to reduction of active biofilter. The highest total VOC elimination capacities reached by the media were 197, 210 and 241 g/$\rm m\sp3$-hr on a total VOC basis for BSHM, YW and BS respectively.

After 300 days of operation, biofilter media was re-characterized. Profiles with depth were observed for moisture content, volatile solids, water extracted total organic carbon, solid matrix total nitrogen, pH and oxygen uptake rate. Oxygen uptake rates increased in BS and YW, indicating higher microbial activity of VOC degrading organisms. Insignificant changes in total nitrogen, volatile solids, and pH were observed. Water extract total organic carbon and fungi density increased in all media.

In the full-scale system, low oxygen uptake rates were related to dry areas. High compaction, hydrophobicity and fine particle sizes indicated media deterioration. Moisture content heterogeneity indicated a need for moisture addition system improvements.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Environmental engineering;
Microbiology;
Chemical engineering
Classification
0775: Environmental engineering
0410: Microbiology
0542: Chemical engineering
Identifier / keyword
Applied sciences, Biological sciences, Biofilter, Biosolids, Compost, Yard waste
Title
Characterization of compost biofilter media
Author
Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz
Number of pages
243
Publication year
1998
Degree date
1998
School code
0118
Source
DAI-B 59/07, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9780591960471, 0591960478
Advisor
Ergas, Sarina J.
University/institution
University of Massachusetts Amherst
University location
United States -- Massachusetts
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
9841846
ProQuest document ID
304468367
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/304468367
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