Abstract/Details

Investigation of gene and cellular therapies to cure maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) in a genetically engineered mouse model


2008 2008

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Abstract (summary)

MSUD is a serious liver-based metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. Resulting branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) accretion in the body mainly affects the brain, which in most cases results in permanent neurological dysfunction or death without life-long attentive care. Recently it was shown liver transplantation alone restored BCKDH to a level sufficient to correct MSUD. To test novel therapies, a mouse model of intermediate MSUD (iMSUD) was created (Homanics et al., 2006), which mimicked human iMSUD. Therefore, this dissertation focused on the investigation of liver-directed therapeutic approaches to correct MSUD.

In the first aim, iMSUD mice were further characterized and determined to closely mirror the human disease phenotype. iMSUD mice suffered from developmental delay, seizures, and altered brain amino acid and neurotransmitter concentration. iMSUD brains also displayed histological abnormalities while liver morphology was normal.

In the second aim, adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors were used to deliver E2 to the liver. However, no significant improvement was determined in AAV-treated iMSUD mice compared to controls. The most likely reasons this study was unsuccessful were low treatment dose, a weak albumin promoter, and possible competition and interaction between AAV-derived and iMSUD transgene-derived E2.

The third aim focused on hepatocyte transplantation (HTx). iMSUD-HTx mice had a 75% reduction in BCAA/alanine levels compared to iMSUD controls. BCKDH activity was increased, and Real Time qPCR detected donor-derived E2 in the liver. Dopamine and serotonin, along with several related metabolites, were corrected to control levels. Body weight at weaning and survival were also significantly improved in iMSUD-HTx mice.

The fourth aim focused on differentiated embryonic stem cell (ESC) transplantation. Differentiated ESCs expressed liver-specific markers after 3 days in culture and BCKDH activity was significantly increased over undifferentiated ESC populations. Liver-like ESC engraftment was verified up to 1 month following transplantation into wildtype mouse liver.

In summary, iMSUD mice were determined to be a superior model to test novel liver-directed therapies. Our findings of partial metabolic correction of iMSUD in a mouse model by HTx were very encouraging. Therefore, liver-directed therapeutic intervention for human MSUD should be investigated further.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Genetics;
Medicine
Classification
0369: Genetics
0564: Medicine
Identifier / keyword
Health and environmental sciences; Biological sciences; Adeno-associated virus; Embryonic stem cells; Gene therapy; Hepatocyte transplant; Maple syrup urine disease
Title
Investigation of gene and cellular therapies to cure maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) in a genetically engineered mouse model
Author
Skvorak, Kristen J.
Number of pages
219
Publication year
2008
Degree date
2008
School code
0178
Source
DAI-B 69/12, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9780549950929
University/institution
University of Pittsburgh
University location
United States -- Pennsylvania
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3340436
ProQuest document ID
304505839
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/304505839
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