Implementing a *policy of foreign languages at the elementary school level (FLES) on Long Island
The percentage of school districts across the nation offering K–12, sequential foreign language study (FLES) increased from 22% to 31% over the last ten years Branaman & Rhodes, 1997). Long Island public schools followed this trend with an increase from 2% to almost 15% over the last ten years. The primary reasons for implementing this policy are: enhanced global competitiveness, increased understanding and acceptance of other cultures and peoples, and greater proficiency in a foreign language through a longer sequence of study (Curtain & Pesola, 1994; Lipton, 1998; Met, 1998). In addition to these outcomes, studies of early second language programs indicate the positive effects of this policy on creative and divergent thinking, language arts, math scores, and scores on standardized tests such as SATs (Armstrong & Rogers, 1997; Cooper, 1987; Garfinkel & Tabor, 1991; Landry, 1974). The purpose of this document is to facilitate the successful implementation of FLES programs. The document includes a critical review of quantitative and qualitative studies of FLES (including an effect-size analysis of statistical data where applicable). In addition, it contains, analyses of implementation issues (educational, economic, political, and social), a synthesis of relevant literature, and a qualitative examination of the implementation process through interviews with educators on Long Island.
0279: Language arts