A meta-analysis of parenting and school success: The role of parents in promoting students' academic performance
Within the past few decades, there has been a growing general consensus in the research literature that parents play a vital role in promoting children's school success. There is a lack of consensus, however, on the identification of specific parenting practices that have the most influence on students' academic performance in school. Parents need guidance that is reflective of a broad review of the research on how to effectively help their children attain school success. The first purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices and student achievement in order to determine which specific parenting practices in the home and school are most closely associated with students' school success. The second purpose was to explore whether other factors, such as socioeconomic status, grade level, and ethnicity, influence the relationship between parenting practices and student achievement. The third purpose was to identify specific parenting practices that have a significant negative association with student achievement. The methodology utilized in this study was a meta-analysis, or a quantitative research synthesis, that statistically combines the results of primary studies to draw new overall conclusions. The results of a series of multivariate regression analyses indicate that 20 specific parenting practices, in combination, can account for as much as one-quarter (23.1%) of the variance in student achievement outcomes. Within these, seven parenting practices, when combined, account for approximately one-sixth, or 16.3%, of the variance in student achievement. The seven positive parenting practices that have the strongest association with student achievement are: (1) educational aspirations and grade expectations; (2) parent engagement; (3) authoritative parenting; (4) autonomy support; (5) emotional support; (6) providing resources and learning experiences; and (7) very specific parent participation activities in school. Socioeconomic status, grade level, and ethnicity are three factors that clearly have interaction effects on the relationship between these seven parenting practices and student achievement outcomes. These moderating factors also have interaction effects with 8 negative parenting practices. There are eight negative parenting practices that, in combination, account for 31.9% of the variance in student achievement and may contribute to student's lack of success. These negative parenting practices include: (1) restrictions for unsatisfactory grades; (2) external rewards; (3) negative control; (4) homework surveillance; (5) disengagement; (6) encouraging conformity; (7) permissiveness; and (8) control. A new theoretical framework and a Model of Interactive and Overlapping Influences on Students' Achievement In School were formulated to integrate the findings of this study with current theories in the research literature. In summation, Guidelines for Parents, school policy implications and directions for future research were discussed.
0628: Personal relationships
0525: Educational psychology
0451: Social psychology