The effects of facework strategies: Evolutionary explanations of face management
This study proposed that the capacity of managing face issues is essential for human evolution because face management possesses survival and reproduction values. An evolutionary explanation of face management was provided to introduce ultimate and proximate causes of facework behaviors. An experiment was conducted to examine the relative effects of facework strategies on the projected impressions and to explore their relationships with the consequences of face management in solving adaptive problems of resource acquisition and mating. For adaptive problem solving, the findings showed that facework strategies directly affected perceived employability but not perceived mating potential. Additionally, facework strategy users' sex influenced both perceived employability and mating potential. For projected impressions, the findings showed that facework strategies, joined by strategy user's sex, directly affected perceived communication effectiveness and appropriateness, but not interpersonal attraction or likeability. In all, two structural pattern models were generated from the findings to demonstrate face management process in reacting to adaptive problems. The first model indicated that the association between facework strategies and perceived employability was mediated through communication effectiveness and appropriateness. The second model indicated that the association between facework strategies and perceived mating potential was mediated first through communication effectiveness and appropriateness, and then through interpersonal attraction and likeability. The study ended with a discussion of the major findings and an interpretation of those findings in light of the existing research on face management and evolutionary theories.