Momentum and spin transport properties of spin polarized Fermi systems
We carried out experiments on a spin polarized 3He- 4He mixture with 3He concentration x 3 = 6.26 × 10−4, and on pure 3He liquid. Spin polarization affects the transport properties of these Fermi systems. The effect on momentum transport was studied by using a vibrating-wire viscometer to measure viscosity of the 3He-4He mixture over the temperature range 6.09 mK–100 mK in 7.96 T and 1.00 T magnetic fields. A large viscosity increase was observed upon application of the 7.96 T magnetic field for temperature T < TF(TF = 19.5 mK is the Fermi temperature). The observed viscosity is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations for a dilute Fermi gas by Jeon and Mullin [1988, 1989] and Mullin and Jeon . The polarization effect on spin transport was investigated by measuring the transverse diffusion coefficient D ⊥ in pure 3He liquid at saturated vapor pressure and at 15.85 bar over the temperature range 4.5 mK–159 mK in a 7.96 T magnetic field. We used a pulsed NMR spin echo technique in a field gradient of 16.0 G/cm to do the measurements and fits to the Leggett equations  to obtain D⊥. For T < 20 mK, we found D⊥ is less than measured in earlier experiments at lower magnetic fields. D⊥ does not increase with decreasing temperature as 1/T2, but appears to approach a constant as T → 0 while it is expected that the longitudinal spin diffusion coefficient D∥ ∝ 1/ T2. This is called spin diffusion anisotropy and it was observed for the first time in our 3He liquid experiments. The anisotropy temperature we determined for 3He liquid was Ta = 16.4 ± 2.2 mK at saturated vapor pressure and in a 7.96 T magnetic field. The transverse spin diffusion in 3 He results agree qualitatively with theories proposed by Meyerovich and Musaeflan [1992, 1994]. They also agree qualitatively with theories proposed by Golosov and Ruckenstein [1995, 1998] by extrapolation of the dilute theory to a strongly interacting system.