Pre -referral Intervention with Parents as Partners (PIPP): An investigation of efficacy, implementation fidelity, and parent involvement in team-based problem solving procedures
There were three main reasons for doing this study. The fast reason was to find out if the Pre-referral Intervention with Parents as Partners (PIPP) model, a team-based problem-solving process that actively involves parents, was effective in helping students improve their school performance. The second purpose was to find out if school personnel used the problem-solving process in a consistent manner. Finally, parents and teachers were asked to rate how effective the problem-solving process was in helping their child/student.
The effectiveness of the PIPP model was evaluated by following four students as they went through the problem-solving process at his/her school. Individuals participating on the team included the student's parents, general education teacher and a team leader who facilitated the process. All four students also had additional school personnel, including the principal, school psychologist and/or reading specialist serve as occasional team members during the problem-solving process. The students in the study included two 6-year-old males attending Kindergarten, a 7-year-old female attending first grade, and an 8-year-old male attending second grade.
The results of the study showed that the PIPP model was effective in helping students improve their behavior and academic performance at school. In addition, the results indicated that school personnel implemented the problem-solving process in a reliable manner. Finally, parents and teachers rated the problem-solving process as acceptable and effective. The results of the study are important because they show that the teaming process can help individual students improve their school performance. The results also show that parents enjoy being involved in the problem-solving process.