Abstract/Details

Mesoscale thermal model for urban heat island mitigation


2009 2009

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Abstract (summary)

A simple energy balance model is created for use in developing mitigation strategies for the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. The model is applied to the city of Phoenix, Arizona, USA. There are six primary contributions to the overall energy balance: incident solar radiation, anthropogenic heat input, conduction heat loss, outgoing evapotranspiration, outgoing convection, and outgoing emitted radiation. The model temperature is shown to have the same periodic behavior as the experimentally measured air temperatures. The present model, while maintaining valid energy-balance physics, allows users to quickly and easily predict the relative effects of urban heat island mitigation measures. Accordingly, this model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20 percent from baseline values. In addition to modeling mitigation strategies, the model is utilized to evaluate human health vulnerability from excessive heat-related events, based on heat-related emergency service data from 2002 to 2006. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to a 48 percent reduction in annual heat-related emergency service calls, where increasing the albedo is the single most effective UHI mitigation strategy.

Finally, a spatial superposition design is presented that couples this model with the more robust fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University - National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). As a result, a new hypothesis is conceived which states that perturbation values from the norm temperature do not change when certain mitigation strategies are imposed. It is shown from demonstrative spatial mitigation schemes that having a fewer number of mitigated points (by almost half) on a square urban grid in Phoenix with the same average albedo leads to a greater reduction in average hourly temperature when these mitigated points are distributed appropriately. All model developments and analysis are validated against MM5 with high confidence.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Atmospheric sciences;
Environmental science;
Environmental engineering
Classification
0725: Atmospheric sciences
0768: Environmental science
0775: Environmental engineering
Identifier / keyword
Health and environmental sciences; Applied sciences; Earth sciences; Energy balance; Heat transfer; Urban heat islands
Title
Mesoscale thermal model for urban heat island mitigation
Author
Silva, Humberto Ramon
Number of pages
79
Publication year
2009
Degree date
2009
School code
0010
Source
DAI-B 70/05, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9781109185812
University/institution
Arizona State University
University location
United States -- Arizona
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3360769
ProQuest document ID
304844620
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/304844620
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