Competitive swimmers' interpretation of motivational climate and achievement goals
The purpose of this study was to investigate swimmers' perceptions of motivational climate, achievement goals, satisfaction and enjoyment, persistence, practice avoidance, and achievement within the domain of competitive youth swimming. Implications of these finding for coaches and swimmers are discussed. Participants completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-2, and the Participation in Swimming Questionnaire. A subset of the participants completed these questionnaires at two points in time.
Swimmers' perceptions of motivational climate were more mastery-oriented than performance-oriented. The perception of a mastery-oriented climate was significantly positively related to satisfaction and persistence in swimming, and negatively related to practice avoidance. Perceptions of a performance-oriented motivational climate were significantly negatively related to satisfaction and enjoyment in swimming and positively related to practice avoidance.
Swimmers' perception of a mastery-oriented motivational climate was a positive predictor of mastery approach goals, satisfaction and enjoyment, persistence, and a negative predictor of mastery avoidance goals and practice avoidance. Swimmers' perceptions of a performance-oriented motivational climate was a positive predictor of performance approach goals and practice avoidance and a negative predictor of satisfaction and enjoyment in swimming.
Mastery approach goals significantly positively predicted satisfaction and enjoyment and persistence, and negatively predicted practice avoidance. Mastery avoidance goals negatively predicted satisfaction and enjoyment. Performance approach goals significantly positively predicted persistence.
The 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Framework was applied to the sport setting and two clusters of achievement goal profiles emerged. In Cluster 1 swimmers had moderate mean scores on mastery avoidance and performance approach goals and low mean scores on performance avoidance goals. Cluster 2 consisted of swimmers with high mean scores on mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals.
Perceptions of motivational climate and achievement goals were assessed once at the beginning of the season and once prior to the end of the competitive swim season. There were no significant differences found in perceptions of motivational climate or achievement goals over time.
0525: Educational psychology