Physicochemical and sensory properties of autumnberry and application in bread
Autumnberry is a low-cost underutilized fruit with potential for highly valuable antioxidant/nutraceutical applications. Spectrophotometric and Oxygen Radical Absorbance capacity (ORACFL) methods were used to test the lycopene content and ORAC-value of both pureed and freeze-dried autumnberry (in dried weight): 2.90±0.04 mg/g lycopene and 144.14±4.86 μmol TE/g ORAC-value, and after freeze-drying, 0.70±0.00 mg/g lycopene and 102.26±3.27 μmol TE/g ORAC-value. A sensory trained panel (n=12) participated in descriptive analysis to evaluate freeze-dried autumnberry fortified bread at 0%, 3%, 6%, and 9% levels. A general linear mixed model was fitted using the mixed procedure of SAS. At p<0.05, the significant differences were detected among all breads in term of crumb color and autumnberry flavor, but not in yeasty flavor. The significant differences in crust color and firmness were detected at 6% and 9% level; and at 0% and 9% for crumb cell uniformity. The 3%-fortified bread was preferred and the closest to the control in terms of flavor and physical characteristics. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the bread control had distinct yeasty flavor, while the 9% fortified bread was strongly related to crumb cell uniformity. Lycopene in autumnberry appeared to be easily degraded by freeze-drying (75.86%) and only small quantity retained after baking (7-9%).