Children's response styles and risk for depression and anxiety: Developmental and sex differences
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive relationship of response styles (i.e., rumination and distraction) to depression and anxiety in children and to test the hypothesis that response styles explain the emergence of sex differences in depression in adolescence. Children in the 2 nd through 7th grade completed questionnaires that measure response styles, depressive and anxious symptoms, and stressors. The reliability and validity of a response styles questionnaire, designed specifically for children, was established through multisample confirmatory factor analysis, and by examining the internal consistency, retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the measure. The predictive association between response styles and depressive symptoms was examined and the diathesis-stress model was tested by examining the moderating effects of stress on the relationship between rumination and changes in depressive and anxious symptoms. Results revealed that rumination and distraction were positively and significantly correlated, suggesting that they are not orthogonal in nature. In addition, results revealed that rumination predicted both depressive and anxious symptoms, and that 6th/7th grade girls ruminated more than same aged boys. Stress did not moderate the relationship between response styles and anxiety. In contrast, the interaction between rumination and stress predicted later depression; however, the direction of the interaction was inconsistent with the prediction of the theory. Implications for the downward extension of response styles to children are discussed.
0620: Developmental psychology