Abstract/Details

Zinc finger nuclease knockout of CCR5 in hematopoetic stem cells as an anti-HIV gene therapy


2009 2009

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Abstract (summary)

CCR5 is the major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry and an important target for drug development. The recent finding that hematopoietic stem cell [1] transplantation from a CCR5-negative donor to an HIV-infected patient produces long-term virus control in the absence of antiretroviral drugs suggests the potential of stem cell and gene therapies targeting CCR5. To this end, we are developing a protocol to knock-out CCR5 in a patient's own HSC using CCR5-targeted zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs).

ZFNs are sequence specific proteins that generate a double-stranded break in DNA, which is converted into a gene-disrupting lesion by host repair processes. We have optimized the delivery and function of ZFNs targeting CCR5 in human CD34-positive HSC, achieving up to 27% disruption of CCR5 alleles. We confirmed that ZFN-treated HSC remain fully functional by transplanting a mouse model of human hematopoiesis, the NOD/SCID/IL2γcnull (NSG) mouse, where the modified HSC retained the ability to differentiate into multiple hematopoietic lineages.

Humanized NSG mice are additionally capable of supporting HIV-1 infection. Following challenge with an R5-tropic virus, control animals demonstrated altered CD4:CD8 ratios, profound loss of human cells in the thymus and GALT, and high viral loads in multiple tissues sampled. In contrast, ZFN-treated animals had significantly lower acute viral loads and very low levels of virus in tissues by 10-12 weeks post-infection. At this stage the numbers of human cells in tissues that are targets for HIV-1 infection had normalized, including the GALT and thymus. FACS and PCR analysis revealed a rapid and dramatic selection for CCR5-negative cells in these populations. These findings demonstrate that ZFN-treated HSC can generate HIV-resistant cells in vivo that rapidly replace cells depleted by HIV-1 infection, and importantly, preserve GALT populations. Transient ZFN treatment resulting in permanent disruption of CCR5 in autologous HSC could therefore represent a viable clinical approach for HIV-infected patients.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Virology
Classification
0720: Virology
Identifier / keyword
Biological sciences; Gene therapy; Hematopoetic stem cells; Zinc finger nucleases
Title
Zinc finger nuclease knockout of CCR5 in hematopoetic stem cells as an anti-HIV gene therapy
Author
Holt, Nathalia
Number of pages
66
Publication year
2009
Degree date
2009
School code
0235
Source
DAI-B 70/07, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9781109285437
Advisor
Garry, Robbert F.
Committee member
Cannon, Paula M.; Morris, Cindy; Voss, Thomas
University/institution
Tulane University
Department
Biomedical Sciences
University location
United States -- Louisiana
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3366775
ProQuest document ID
305008353
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/305008353
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