Regulation of two P450 isoforms: CYP2D6 and CYP4F11
Cytochromes P450 catalyze a monooxygenase reaction in which molecular oxygen is split and one oxygen atom is incorporated into the substrate. As a whole, P450 researchers have focused most of their attention on substrate metabolism and relatively little on how these enzymes are regulated. This study will focus on the regulation of two P450 isoforms known as, CYP2D6 and CYP4F11.
The human CYP2D gene locus contains two pseudogenes and one functional gene known as CYP2D6. This locus is highly polymorphic and produces several alternatively spliced transcripts from the pseudogene CYP2D7. My objective was to understand the role of SV5-in (splice variant 5), one of several alternative splice variants transcribed from the CYP2D7 pseudogene. My results indicate that SV5-in mRNA causes an increase in CYP2D6 protein levels and suggest that there is a role for SV5-in in regulation of CYP2D6 expression.
Second, CYP4F11 is a recently discovered and uncharacterized isoform, derived from the CYP4F subfamily. It metabolizes several clinically relevant drugs (i.e.—erythromycin and benzphetamine) and some endogenous inflammatory mediators (i.e.—LTB4). After evaluation of microarray data, I observed an increase in CYP4F11 mRNA levels from wild-type HCT116 cells compared to p53-null cells. Our objectives were to explore and understand this connection between p53 and CYP4F11. Microarray data were confirmed by Q-PCR, after which this effect was again observed at the protein level via Western blot and again at the promoter level via luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Our results indicate that p53 protein regulates expression of CYP4F11 mRNA and protein through CYP4F11 promoter binding (note that p53 binding to CYP4F11 DNA was not shown to be direct). These results signify a whole new level of regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes by p53.
An understanding of CYP4F11 regulation by p53 could help us understand another pathway leading to apoptosis or cell growth arrest. This can aid future drug studies and discover new drug metabolism pathways under the control of a tumor suppressor protein. An understanding of the CYP2D6 regulation pathway could illuminate the role of non-coding RNAs in the P450 field and potentially explain several inter-individual drug response variations observed in clinical medicine that are not yet completely explained by genotyping analysis.
0379: Cellular biology