Athletic gender equity policy: The potential for United States Title IX directives in Canadian universities
This mixed method study used a combination of document analysis and survey research to investigate the potential to which U.S. Title IX directives could be extrapolated for adoption or adaptation in Canadian interuniversity athletics. The process of updating and developing an acceptable athletic gender equity policy for Canadian Interuniversity Sport [CIS] began just prior to 2001. From that time until the present, the CIS has established both specific and tentative directives regarding athletic gender equity. However, a definitive overall policy is not yet in existence.
The document analysis focused on the CIS' development and implementation of policy and on the thirty-year history of American Title IX athletic policy. An examination was made to determine the similarities between the two initiatives along with the problems experienced over time with American policy. The nature of these problems was explored to conclude if the same issues would arise for Canadian institutions. An inductive scrutiny of various documents [emails, letters, meeting minutes, policy manuals, etc] took place to determine themes, patterns, and categories of analysis. A survey was then developed to determine if Canadian university athletic directors would be receptive towards policy directives Title IX put forth to implement athletic gender equity and enforce institutional compliance. This 26-item survey consisted of nominal, ordinal, and interval data and was mailed to a purposeful sampling of the 50 CIS athletic directors. In this study the answers to the individual survey questions acted as the values for the dependent variable. There were four main independent variables that could have affected the results of the survey responses. These were: (1) size of the university (student population); (2) total athletic scholarship budget; (3) gender of athletic directors; and (4) experience [in years] of athletic directors.
The findings from the study indicated American Title IX policy could be adopted in Canadian institutions. It was also noted the problems related to athletic gender equity policy existent in U.S. academic institutions would likely surface in Canadian universities as well. As such, if Canadian policymakers could develop suitable alternative directives then adaptations to Title IX would probably be both acceptable and welcome.
0514: School administration