Isolation, identification, and biological characterization of the sea lamprey (<i>Petromyzon marinus</i>) migratory pheromone

2006 2006

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Abstract (summary)

This dissertation establishes the chemical identity, behavioral activity, and environmental origins and fates of a migratory pheromone employed by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an ancient species of fish. Although previous studies had demonstrated that larval sea lamprey release an odor (pheromone) that guides adults to spawning streams, the complete composition of this odor and its biological activity were unknown. Initial tests using adsorbent resins revealed that XAD7HP was both effective and efficient at extracting and concentrating the pheromone from larval holding water. This resin was then employed to extract large quantities of the pheromone, which was subsequently purified using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Concurrent use of two bioassays (olfactory screening using electro-olfactogram recording from migratory adults and behavioral tests using 2-choice mazes supplied with lake water) led to the eventual isolation of three compounds with high biological activity. These three were: petromyzonol sulfate ('PS'; a compound previously suspected of having pheromonal activity), an unknown compound with a mass of 590.4 daltons, and a third unknown compound with a mass of 704.4 daltons. The third compound was the most active and had olfactory and behavioral activity at a concentration of 10-13 Molar (M). A mixture of all three compounds could account for most of the pheromone's behavioral activity. Collaborative studies employing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) established that both of the new compounds were novel disulfated steroids, which we identified and named petromyzosterol disulfate ('PSDS'), and petromyzonamine disulfate ('PADS'). Subsequent analyses of larval holding waters and stream waters using MS showed that larval sea lamprey release ∼10 to 30 ng/larva/hr of all three compounds and that PS and PADS are present in river waters at biologically relevant concentrations. We also found that these compounds have a half-life of ∼3 days in natural waters. Together, these studies demonstrate that PADS, PSDS, and PS constitute the majority of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone, the first migratory pheromone identified in a vertebrate. A mixture of these compounds clearly has promise for use controlling sea lampreys in the Great Lakes where they are a serious invasive pest.

Indexing (details)

Anatomy & physiology;
Fish production;
0433: Anatomy & physiology
0433: Animals
0792: Aquaculture
0792: Fish production
0329: Ecology
Identifier / keyword
Biological sciences; Migratory pheromone; Petromyzon marinus; Petromyzonamine disulfate; Petromyzosterol disulfate; Pheromones; Sea lamprey
Isolation, identification, and biological characterization of the sea lamprey (<i>Petromyzon marinus</i>) migratory pheromone
Fine, Jared Mitchell
Number of pages
Publication year
Degree date
School code
DAI-B 67/06, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
Sorensen, Peter W.
University of Minnesota
University location
United States -- Minnesota
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Document type
Dissertation/thesis number
ProQuest document ID
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
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