Abstract/Details

The availability of salient and conceptually central properties of concepts in different contexts


2003 2003

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Abstract (summary)

This work investigated the ways in which the properties of a concept are activated when that concept is accessed. There has been considerable debate about how closely property information is tied to concepts and under what conditions it is available (e.g., Margolis and Lawrence, 1999). If property information is automatically activated, it should be detectable in both frequency estimation and speeded response tasks. According to Barsalou and Ross' automaticity hypothesis (1986, p.117), “…people become sensitive to the frequency of non-presented information through automatic processing of presented items by well-established memory structures.” On this account, if a list of concepts is presented, participants may be sensitive to the frequency of their properties. Therefore, after studying a list of items, participants should be able to estimate the number of items that were “red” or “sweet” without recalling individual items. Naturally, some properties are more important to a concept than others and are more likely to be activated. Sloman, Love, and Ahn (1998) developed a taxonomy of conceptual properties. Using ratings obtained in a variety of tasks, they performed a factor analysis that revealed three factors: centrality, salience, and diagnosticity. In these studies, I manipulated centrality and salience to appraise their relative importance for the activation of properties. Barsalou's (1982) work on context-independent and context-dependent properties asserts that the activation of properties may be automatic or strategic, depending on the property type. In both a frequency estimation task and a sentence-word priming task, I manipulated context to evaluate whether central or salient properties are context-dependent. In the sentence-word priming task, I was also able to assess degrees of context dependency. I found that: (1) people demonstrated frequency sensitivity to both central and salient properties but were more sensitive to central properties; (2) central properties appear to be activated faster than salient properties as indicated by the slopes in the frequency estimation task and reaction times in the sentence-word priming task; (3) the activation of both central and salient properties appear to be context-dependent or situated (Barsalou, 2000), with the activation of central properties being moderately context-dependent and that of salient properties, highly context-dependent.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Cognitive therapy
Classification
0633: Cognitive therapy
Identifier / keyword
Psychology; Automaticity; Categorization; Conceptually central; Context dependence
Title
The availability of salient and conceptually central properties of concepts in different contexts
Author
Friedman-Berg, Ferne Joi
Number of pages
234
Publication year
2003
Degree date
2003
School code
0118
Source
DAI-B 64/01, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9780493996967, 0493996966
Advisor
Well, Arnold D.
University/institution
University of Massachusetts Amherst
University location
United States -- Massachusetts
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3078682
ProQuest document ID
305322463
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/305322463
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