Association between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns in the United States population
Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum leptin and dietary patterns of 4346 adults in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Dietary intake data collected using a food frequency questionnaire were categorized into 25 food groups. Factor analysis was used to derive three dietary patterns based on the frequency of consumption of the 25 food groups and labeled Prudent, Western, and Lacto-ovo-vegetarian. Unadjusted leptin concentrations were significantly higher in the Prudent pattern (8.6 ± 0.4 μg/L) compared to the Western (6.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) and Lacto-ovo-vegetarian dietary pattern (7.7 ± 0.3 μg/L) ( p < 0.02). When leptin data were adjusted for sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, alcohol, age, and body mass index (BMI), no significant associations were observed between dietary patterns and serum leptin concentrations.