Abstract/Details

Influence of feed withdrawal on intestinal characteristics of broilers


2005 2005

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Abstract (summary)

In the poultry industry, the removal of feed prior to processing is a necessary step for reducing the incidence of carcass contamination and the potential for foodborne illness caused by carcass contamination. Unfortunately, this procedure often increases intestinal colonization by pathogens, though the mechanisms are not well-characterized. Therefore, four experiments were conducted to characterize the changes that occur within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) during feed withdrawal (FW) and with different dietary treatments. Broilers (39 to 62d of age) were subjected to FW periods of 0, 8, 10, 12, and/or 24h in each experiment, and GIT morphology, microbiology, and electrophysiology were measured. In experiment (Exp) 1, ileal villus width and crypt depth were decreased by FW while jejunal villus height increased, though ileal cell migration rate was not affected by FW. After 24h of FW, mucus quantity was reduced. For Exp. 2, microbial communities were less diverse, as indicated by the reduction in bacterial species and diversity during 24h FW. Dietary copper increased the similarity of bacterial communities while dietary antibiotics reduced similarities. In Exp. 3, electrophysiology measurements demonstrated that 24h FW caused reductions in initial current and transepithelial resistance, indicating a reduction in tissue viability and integrity. Intestinal permeability to 4,400 MW and 40,000 MW markers was reduced by 24h of FW. The final experiment examined how oxyhalogen and ionic salts (OIS) affected broiler performance and Salmonella growth in vitro. Dietary addition of OIS increased BW and led to greater phosphorus and nitrogen retention in young chicks, but the advantages did not last until 42d. Additionally, Salmonella growth was inhibited by 0.025% OIS. These experiments suggest that the increased pathogen colonization that occurs during FW may occur in part due to the reduced mucus quantity combined with a reduced intestinal integrity. Furthermore, dietary additions of copper sulfate and antibiotics had a significant effect on the bacterial communities, while OIS inhibited Salmonella growth, and these additives may be effective in changing GIT bacterial populations.

Indexing (details)


Subject
Livestock
Classification
0475: Livestock
Identifier / keyword
Biological sciences; Broilers; Feed withdrawal; Foodborne pathogens; Intestinal
Title
Influence of feed withdrawal on intestinal characteristics of broilers
Author
Thompson, Kristina Leigh
Number of pages
184
Publication year
2005
Degree date
2005
School code
0183
Source
DAI-B 67/03, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9780542596018, 0542596016
Advisor
Applegate, Todd
University/institution
Purdue University
University location
United States -- Indiana
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3210801
ProQuest document ID
305387758
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/305387758/abstract
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