Abstract/Details

Mechanisms for the differential effects of dietary fatty acids and cholesterol on high density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-high density lipoprotein (NHDL) metabolism in the Golden-Syrian hamster


2005 2005

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Abstract (summary)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Its genesis can be attributed, in part, to dietary and lifestyle patterns. Fat in the diet is comprised of different classes of fatty acids: saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), trans, each having characteristic effects on both high density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL [(nHDL) total − HDL cholesterol] cholesterol concentrations. Investigated first was the time course and response of Charles River (CR) and Bio Breeders (F1B) Golden-Syrian hamsters to dietary SFA (butter) on serum lipoproteins and aortic cholesteryl ester in. After 12 weeks, CR hamsters had significantly lower serum total and nHDL cholesterol concentrations, but higher aortic cholesteryl ester deposition than the F1B hamsters (P < 0.05). Investigated second was the effect of dietary fatty acid classes and cholesterol on HDL metabolism and components of reverse cholesterol transport, the sum of the processes involved with the net removal of cholesterol from extra-hepatic cells for transport to the liver. Canola and soybean oils significantly lowered serum HDL cholesterol concentrations relative to butter. Canola oil, relative to butter, resulted in higher exogenous LCAT activity and both soybean and canola oils significantly increased hepatic apo A-I and SR-B1 mRNA abundance. Butter, relative to margarine, coconut and soybean oils, significantly increased serum non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. Investigated third, in a separate group of hamsters, were the components of nHDL cholesterol metabolism. The presence of dietary cholesterol resulted in lower HMG-CoA reductase mRNA abundance with this blunting effect diminished by the presence of unsaturated fat. MTP mRNA, a marker of VLDL particle formation, was significantly higher in canola and soybean oil fed has relative to the non-purified, cholesterol free diet fed hamsters; although differences were modest. The combination of lower HDL cholesterol concentrations as a result of increased reverse cholesterol transport in conjunction with lower nHDL cholesterol concentrations related to increased mRNA abundance of the LDL-receptor, SREBP-2 and MTP, provide further evidence that dietary cis unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA and PUFA intake, relative to SFA, is positively associated with decreased CVD risk. Response to margarine as demonstrated by similar plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns to soybean oil, as well as, intermediate effects on mRNA abundance and enzyme activity between butter and soybean oil, suggests that the CR Golden-Syrian hamster metabolizes trans fatty acids differently than what has been observed in humans. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Indexing (details)


Subject
Nutrition;
Biochemistry;
Molecular biology
Classification
0570: Nutrition
0487: Biochemistry
0307: Molecular biology
Identifier / keyword
Health and environmental sciences; Pure sciences; Biological sciences; Cardiovascular disease; Cholesterol; Dietary fatty acids; HDL
Title
Mechanisms for the differential effects of dietary fatty acids and cholesterol on high density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-high density lipoprotein (NHDL) metabolism in the Golden-Syrian hamster
Author
Dorfman, Suzanne Erin
Number of pages
197
Publication year
2005
Degree date
2005
School code
0234
Source
DAI-B 65/12, Dissertation Abstracts International
Place of publication
Ann Arbor
Country of publication
United States
ISBN
9780496909803, 0496909800
Advisor
Lichtenstein, Alice H.
University/institution
Tufts University
University location
United States -- Massachusetts
Degree
Ph.D.
Source type
Dissertations & Theses
Language
English
Document type
Dissertation/Thesis
Dissertation/thesis number
3158230
ProQuest document ID
305393357
Copyright
Database copyright ProQuest LLC; ProQuest does not claim copyright in the individual underlying works.
Document URL
http://search.proquest.com/docview/305393357
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