Conjoint behavioral consultation: An examination of academic, behavioral, and social outcomes
The purpose of this study was to conduct a large scale analysis of conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) outcomes based on the nature of target behavior and intervention setting. This is the first study to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of CBC with regard to whether an academic, behavioral, or social concern was targeted during CBC. It is also the first study to systematically assess for differences in the effectiveness of CBC based on the intervention setting during consultation. Finally, this study evaluated if teacher and parent perception of social validity differed based on the type of behavior targeted (i.e., academic, behavioral, social).
This study utilized data from 169 CBC cases conducted in 51 schools across two regions of the country (the Intermountain West and the Midwest) over the course of 8 years of CBC training projects. Participants in this study included 161 children in grades kindergarten through 9th grade. The average age for child participants was 8.5 years old, ranging from 3 to 15 years of age. One hundred and seventy-nine parents and 159 teachers served as consultees.
Text data from 125 CBC cases were extracted from consultant reports and coded based on the type of behavior targeted (i.e., academic, behavioral, social) and the intervention setting (i.e., home, school). Parent and teacher direct observations of child participant behavior or academic performance served as the primary dependent variable in the study.
Objective and subjective outcomes for CBC on academic, behavioral, and social concerns in home and school settings were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. Results suggest that CBC outcomes were positive regardless of the nature of target behavior or the setting in which the intervention occurred. Findings also indicate that CBC is equally effective in addressing academic, behavioral, or social concerns. However, the results demonstrate that CBC is more effective in home settings than at school. Ratings of social validity were positive and did not differ based on the type of behavior targeted or intervention setting.