Alcohol use and alcohol -sexual expectations as risk factors for HIV/AIDS among young people in Zambia
This study examined the role of alcohol use, sexual behavior, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, gender, religion and language as risk factors for HIV/AIDS among high school, college and university students in Lusaka and Chipata, Zambia. The study also examined the differences in drinking behavior and sexual behavior by gender, education level and religion.
A survey questionnaire, developed through focus groups and consultations, was administered to 961 high school, college and university students. Results showed that 33.9% of the students were drinkers, and 41.6% have had sexual relationship. Among the sexually active, 26.8% reported multiple sexual partners and 37.3% reported not having used a condom at least once during their sexual relationships.
Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking behavior and positive-alcohol sexual expectations were significantly related to having multiple sexual partners. Females were also more likely to have multiple sexual partners than males. Catholics were more likely to have multiple sexual partners than Protestants and Pentecostals. Alcohol-sexual expectations and other demographic variables were not related to condom use. Student drinkers in college and university, had higher positive alcohol-sexual expectations and were more likely to have had multiple sexual partners and more likely to have engaged in unsafe post-drinking sexual behavior.
Addressing risky factors for HIV/AIDS among students in Zambia will require among other things, an emphasis on changing drinking behavior, sexual behaviors, condom use, and alcohol-sexual expectations.
Human immunodeficiency virus--HIV;
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome--AIDS;
0680: Health education
0451: Social psychology
0573: Public health