2005 ACIP recommendations effect on newborn hepatitis B vaccination rates and the factors affecting the successful implementation of the recommendations in the US
Background. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of major causes of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B and its long term consequences are major health problems in the United States. Hepatitis B virus can be vertically transmitted from mother to infant during birth. Hepatitis B vaccination at birth is the most effective measure to prevent the newborn from HBV infection and its consequences, and is part of any robust perinatal hepatitis B prevention program following ACIP recommendations. Universal vaccination of the new born will prevent HBV infection during early childhood and, assuming that children receive the three dosages of the vaccine, it will also prevent adolescent and adult infections. Hepatitis B vaccination is now recommended as part of a comprehensive strategy to eliminate HBV transmission in the United States.
Objective. (1)To assess if the hepatitis B vaccination rates of newborn babies have improved after the 2005 ACIP recommendations. (2) To identify factors that affects the implementation of ACIP recommendation for hepatitis B vaccination in newborn babies. These factors will encourage ongoing improvement by identifying successful efforts and pinpointing areas that fall short and need attention. Additional focus areas may be identified to accelerate progress in eliminating perinatal HBV transmission.
Methods. This review includes information from all pertinent articles, reviews, National immunization survey (NIS) surveys, reports, peer reviewed literature and web sources that were published after 1991.The key words to be used for selecting the articles are: "Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention program", "Universal Hepatitis B vaccination of newborn babies", "ACIP Recommendations." The data gathered will be supplemented with an analysis of vaccination rates using the National Immunization Survey (NIS) birth dose coverage data.
Results. The data collected in the NIS of 2009 reveals that the national coverage for birth dose of HepB increased to 60.8% from 50.1% in 2006. The largest increase observed for the birth dose in the past 5 years is from 2008 which increased from 55.3 % to 60.8% in 2009. By state, coverage ranged from 22.8% in Vermont to 80.7% in Michigan. %. Overall, in 2009 the estimated vaccination rates are in higher ranges for most states compared to the estimated vaccination rates in 2006. States vary widely in hepatitis B vaccination rates and in their compliance with the 2005 ACIP recommendation. There are many factors at various stages that might affect the successful implementation of the new ACIP recommendation as revealed in literature review.
Conclusions. HBV perinatal transmission can be eliminated, but it requires identifying the gaps and measures taken to increase the current vaccination coverage, ensuring timely administration of post exposure immunoprophylaxis and continued evaluations of the impact of immunization recommendations.
0573: Public health